Sovereign balance sheets are under intense media scrutiny. Sadly, the scrutiny lacks actual analysis. What makes a debt-to-GDP of 120% for a country more palatable than debt-to-GDP of 80% for the other? The answer is growth. So where is growth going to come from?
From the first principles approach, we know growth is derived from two sides. First, an increase in the penetration of current activity to cover more population leads to growth. Second, inventing new activities leads to growth.
Developing countries are growing using the first method. They have population where goods and services are yet to reach and mature. The risks involved in such growth are well understood.
Developed countries essentially rely on second approach to growth. The technology boom created one innovation driven growth wave in late 80’s and early 90’s. Internet created next one in late 90’s and early 2000. So where will the developed countries get the next source of growth? The answer is still not clear.
First, the tech-led triggered after more than 3 decades of scientific research. Modern computers and the Internet were inventions of 60’s and 70’s before they became a true mass-invention capable of driving GDP growth. At the moment only alternative energy seems to be on such a take-off point. In my limited understanding both nanotech and biotech will take more time and won’t be mass-inventions for another few decades.
Finally, it means that investors should be better off targeting “penetration-led” growth in the interim.